The conversation appears to have been recently analysed as part of an effort by USA intelligence agencies to find proof of who was responsible for Khashoggi's death.
"We know that the Crown Prince did not order this. It was committed by officials of the Saudi government acting outside their authority". According to the organization, the late reporter became the victim of "brutal and premeditated killing, planned and perpetrated by officials of the State of Saudi Arabia".
"Consistent with the previous administration's position and the constitutional separation of powers, the president maintains his discretion to decline to act on congressional committee requests when appropriate", the administration said, adding that the USA already has taken action against the killers.
Mr Jubeir said he would not comment on stories without named attribution after the New York Times reported that Prince Mohammed threatened to use "a bullet" on Mr Khashoggi. He had gone to the Saudi consulate to get certification of his divorce, so he could marry his fiancée. His remains have still not been found.
The Minister reiterated that Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman and the Saudi leadership are a "red line", and that dictation from any country "will not be allowed in our actions".
During his visit to Washington, Jubeir met with many members of Congress where they discussed the situation in Yemen, Iran's destabilizing activities, the security situation in the African-Sahel region and ongoing discussions to achieve a peaceful settlement in Afghanistan.
The UN official said, "Woefully inadequate time and access was granted to Turkish investigators to conduct a professional and effective crime-scene examination and search required by worldwide standards for investigation". It has also called for an global inquiry.
The crown prince's comments to a top aide in 2017 were made well before Khashoggi was killed last October in a Saudi consulate in Istanbul, the Times reported, citing current and former U.S. and foreign officials knowledgeable about intelligence reports.
The final report will be presented to the United Nations human rights council in June.
Some 10 million foreigners are working in Saudi Arabia, majority doing strenuous, unsafe and lower-paid jobs largely shunned by the country's 20 million citizens.
The meeting was part of a push by bin Salman to develop media companies that can compete with Saudi Arabia's regional competitors, including Qatar's Al-Jazeera media company.
It is unclear if any of the 17 are on trial.
Turkey has sought the extradition of the Saudi citizens involved in the killing as well as a fuller accounting of the killing from Riyadh.
The killing case of journalist Jamal Khashoggi in October did not affect Saudi Arabia's foreign relations with the worldwide community and did not limit foreign economic investments in Saudi Arabia, according to Saudi Minister of State for Foreign Affairs Adel al-Jubeir.
The State Department said Thursday Washington had already taken action, pointing to last year's revocation of visas for almost two dozen Saudi officials and the freezing of assets of 17 others.
The killing, he said repeatedly, was a "terrible crime" and those responsible will be held accountable.